Percentage change in water use efficiency over time.

This indicator is proposed as an indicator for Sustainable Development Target 06.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.

Value Range


The indicator can be calculated using existing datasets from FAO-AQUASTAT on water withdrawals in different sectors, together with datasets on value generation from National Accounts Main Aggregates (UNSD), World Energy Outlook (International Energy Agency), World Bank demographic datasets, WaterStat Database (Water Footprint Network) and IBNET (the International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities). The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA, 2012) will provide robust withdrawal and consumption based statistics in the long-term but is currently only being compiled by a select number of countries. Modelled data could be used to fill in gaps while capacity is being developed, so that the indicator could be calculated for all countries immediately. The indicator provides an aggregated measure of overall change in productivity across sectors, but it is built on sectoral data and is therefore relevant to each of the sectors

FAO, on behalf of UN-Water A partial monitoring framework is already in place, currently being finalized under the GEMI monitoring initiative under the UN-Water umbrella (see description under 6.3.1). Data on efficiency are available for all countries. Data for baseline year will be used to track progress in successive years.

Linkages: This indicator informs on the following targets: 2.4, 8.4, 9.4 12.2, 12.3, 15.1.

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The list of indicator proposals (as of 11 August 2015) used for the IAEG-SDG Open Consultation with Civil Society, Academia and Private Sector.

460 item pages.